The Structure of Concern Project compares many theoretical models from many disciplines to the Adizes PAEI model, arguing that they must all be reflecting the same underlying phenomenon. One concern structure model is described below.
The Karolinska Scales of Personality provide an inventory of stable personality traits used primarily for research rather than clinical purposes. It contains 135 items grouped into 15 scales. These scales focus specifically on biological character dispositions that are hypothesized to underlie psychological disorders, rather than on personality as a whole. It was culled together primarily from existing instruments, guided by theoretical considerations rather than statistical analysis. However, it has since been subjected to much psychometric testing and validation across many clinical populations, and in that process it also became clear that somewhere between three and five factors accounted for much of the variance (Ortet et al., 2002).
Against this background, Ortet and colleagues set out find the most robust factor analysis of the Karolinska scales. The four factors they isolated were the following:
P - Aggressive Nonconformity: Aggressiveness, irritability, and low desire to respond in a socially approved, desirable way.
A – Negative Emotionality: Anxiety, worry, tension, lack of both energy and assertiveness, characterized by remorse and mistrust.
E - Impulsive Unsocialized Sensation Seeking: Non-planning, quick responding, thrill seeking, need for change, and social maladjustment.
I – Social Withdrawal: Related to extraversion and involvement-detachment, together with (low) socialization, (low) social desirability, irritability, and suspicion. This factor is related to both social and emotional distance, withdrawal, and maladjustment.
While the first three factors are according to Adizes type, the last one is against type. The factor still highlights sociality as the relevant domain, but reverses sign compared to the Adizes typology. Strong Integrators would have a striking low score on Social Withdrawal, compared to people weaker in Integration. By contrast, the first three factors can be seen as dysfunctions that emerge from or accompany normal functioning for these types.