The Structure of Concern Project compares many theoretical models from many disciplines to the Adizes PAEI model, arguing that they must all be reflecting the same underlying phenomenon. One concern structure model is described below.
The Plus-32 Employment Testing System is an employee profiling software package based loosely upon the Hippocratic/Galenic temperament model. It sorts personality factors into four main groups. All people have all four personality factors, but only to a certain percentage value for each group. There are 16 personality types, based on the different possible rankings of the four groups. A 17th type "E" is added, indicating someone who is equal in all four main categories. Thus, unlike Adizes or Jungian type theories, it is possible (though thought rare) for someone to be equally strong in all areas (Garrison, 1998).
The Plus 32 system contains pattern-detection algorithms that try to filter out the effects of equivocation between test items, or of employees parroting buzzwords that are known to be important to the corporate culture, but which do not reflect their actual personality. A Plus 32 report thus includes a consistency rating, indicating how consistent a subject's answers were according to the categories of the system. Less confidence is accorded to less consistent results.
The system has been validated by exit interviews among test groups. Profiles for different job functions in an organization are developed through local benchmarking. Human resource officers divide the employees within a job category into thirds, and look for profile similarities and differences among the top-third performers, middle-third performers and lower-third performers. The results of this benchmarking indicate that different profiles characterize top performers doing the same job in different companies, reflecting different corporate cultures and local market situations.
This instrument measures 18 personality traits (listed below) to determine the role of each of the following four personality types in each person.
Type A: The Leader
Type B: Have Personality Will Travel
Type C: The Serious One
Type D: Happy Go Lucky
The order of these four types in Adizes terminology is PEAI.
P - Type A; The Leader: Motivated by money and challenge. Tend to lead, not follow. No patience for fuzzy thoughts or actions that do not lead directly to tangible results or a monetary reward. They hate soft-skills seminars. They only want to hear about the bottom line. They do not take direction well, and have little compassion. To direct them, you have to ask them what they think should be done, debate pros and cons with them, and show them how your proposed direction benefits them more than any alternative.
E -Type B; Have Personality Will Travel: A talker, a people-person who demands recognition and attention, and a constantly changing work environment. They tend to get bored easily. They require direction and thrive on hype and excitement. They hate details, facts and figures, and have short attention spans. They want to try everything without finishing anything. They are flexible and will handle shifts in task assignment well. They have huge egos, and are best rewarded by recognition. They appreciate praise and pep-talks. Although they are very competitive for honors, money means little to them.
A - Type C; The Serious One: Prefer things to be uniform/consistent, professional and reliable. They enjoy technical posts involving detailed charts and graphs. Thrives on routine, perfection, detail and analysis. There is no room for hype in their world. They work on a task until it is completed, by the book. Do not pull them off a half-finished task to work on another one. They need a regular environment, same desk, same hours, clear rules and boundaries, etc. They are loyal in stable situations. They are anchors, rather than movers and shakers.
I - Type D; Happy Go Lucky: Do better in low-key positions. Have pleasant personalities and get along with most people. Do well in customer service, or areas where stability and balance are needed. They have little need for hype or change. They are patient, they like teamwork, and they work at their own pace, neither fast nor slow. They are not hugely ambitious, and they prefer not to rock the boat.