Berens, Linda - The Four Temperament Patterns

The Structure of Concern Project compares many theoretical models from many disciplines to the Adizes PAEI model, arguing that they must all be reflecting the same underlying phenomenon. One concern structure model is described below.

Linda Berens builds her model of the four temperaments on the psychological theories of David Keirsey, focusing on the core needs, values, talents, and behaviors of each temperament patterns (Berens, 2000; Keirsey, 1998; 1995; Choiniere & Keirsey, 1992). Keirsey develops a simplification of Jungian personality theory for practical application, and Berens sees her work as a further refinement of this system specifically for organizational and personal consulting. Berens’ work is used and referenced in a variety of consulting enterprises. Her Keirseian model is described below in PAEI order.

P – The Artisan (Creative Use of Tactics)
Artisans need the freedom to act without hindrance and to see tangible results from their actions. They pride themselves on skilful performance, and they can be very creative in using available resources to reach their goals. They like to keep busy, and enjoy variety and stimulation. They are talented at using tools, whatever domain they may be working in, practical, cultural, artistic, technological, economic, scientific, etc.

A – The Guardian (Creative Use of Logistics)
Guardians value stability and security in their environment, and reliability and responsibility in their communities. They care about their good social standing, and always try to ascertain that they are doing the responsible thing themselves. They are very aware of rules, procedures, and protocol. They trust hierarchy and authority and are taken aback when others rebel. Due to their focus on tradition and procedure, Guardians are good at foreseeing possible disruptions.

E – The Rationalist (Creative Use of Strategy)
Rationalists are driven to master concepts and knowledge. They want to understand the most fundamental principles of everything, and they love grand unifying theories. Expertise, competence and conceptual coherence draw their admiration and respect. They are progressive thinkers who analyze situations deeply and explore new unforeseen possibilities. They are likely to participate in research and analysis, seeking out patterns and developing new concepts.

I – The Idealist (Creative Use of Diplomacy)
Idealists are motivated by working towards a higher good. They prefer cooperative interactions that are grounded in a shared ethical code or collective purpose. They value social unity and personal authenticity. Idealists can be skilled at mediation and conflict resolution within groups, and they are good friends and counsellors when it comes to helping individuals reach their potential. Idealists connect people by encouraging empathy and pointing out deeper commonalities of interests and interdependencies.

1. Berens, L. V., (2000). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to Temperament 2.0. Huntington Beach, California: Telos Publications.
2. Keirsey, D. (1995). Portraits of Temperament (3 ed.). Del Mar, California: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.
3. Keirsey, D. (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence. Del Mar, California: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.
4. Keirsey, D., & Bates, M. (1984). Please Understand Me: Character and Temperament Types (3 ed.). Del Mar, California: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.
5. Choiniere, R., & Keirsey, D. (1992). Presidential Temperament: The Unfolding of Character in the Forty Presidents of the United States. Del Mar, California: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company.
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